Chemical, mineralogical, and physicochemical features of surface saline muds from Southwestern sub-basin of the East Vietnam Sea: Implication for new peloids

Authors

  • Le Duc Luong 1-Institute of Geological Sciences, VAST, Hanoi, Vietnam; 2-Graduate University of Science and Technology, VAST, Hanoi, Vietnam
  • Nguyen Hoang 1-Institute of Geophysics, VAST, Hanoi, Vietnam; 2-Graduate University of Science and Technology, VAST, Hanoi, Vietnam
  • Ryuichi Shinjo Department of Physics and Earth Sciences, University of the Ryukyus, Senbaru 1, Nishihara, Okinawa 903-0213, Japan
  • Renat B. Shakirov V.I. Il'ichev Pacific Oceanological Institute, Far Eastern Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, Vladivostok, 690041 Russian Federation
  • Anatoly Obzhirov V.I. Il'ichev Pacific Oceanological Institute, Far Eastern Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, Vladivostok, 690041 Russian Federation

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.15625/2615-9783/16561

Keywords:

East Vietnam Sea, peloid, mud, total organic carbon, pH, cation exchange capacity

Abstract

This study presents the chemical, mineralogical and physicochemical features of 8 saline mud samples from 8 gravity cores located in the southwestern sub-basin of the East Vietnam Sea. The grain-size analysis of mud samples reveals the amount of clay and silt particles in the ranges of 65.1-89.2% and 9.5-34.2%, respectively and a very low fraction of sand. The analytical results showed that mud samples have high contents of SiO2 (32.79-48.09%), Al2O3 (11.26-13.63%), CaO (3.10-13.93%), Fe2O3 (4.15-9.45%), and low contents of TiO2, MnO, MgO, Na2O, K2O and P2O5. The XRD analysis of mud samples indicated mineral compositions with major minerals of quartz, illite, calcite, chlorite, feldspar, kaolinite, and other minor minerals like halite, smectite, fluorapatite, pyroxene, amphibole. The organic and physicochemical parameters of mud samples were also measured. Potentially toxic elements in mud samples were determined and compared with reference values and the technical standard. This study proposes that saline mud samples from the studied area are potential peloids.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

Ahmad A.F., Nicholas E.P.Jr., 2009. Low levels of toxic elements in Dead Sea black mud and mud-derived cosmetic products. Environ Geochem Health, 31, 487-492.

Anders E., Grevesse N., 1989. Abundances of the elements: Meteoritic and solar. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 53, 197-214.

Cara S., Carcangiu G., Padalino G., Palomba M.. Tamamini M., 2000. The betonites in pelotherapy: chemical. mineralogical and technological properties of materials from Sardinia deposits (Italy). Applied Clay Science, 16, 117-124.

Carretero I.M., Pozo M., 2009. Clay and non-clay minerals in the pharmaceutical industry. Part I. Excipients and medical applications. Applied Clay Science, 46, 73-80.

Carretero I.M., Pozo M., Martin-Rubi J.A., Pozo E., Maraver F., 2010. Mobility of elements in interaction between artificial sweat and peloids used in Spanish spas. Applied Clay Science, 48, 506-515.

Carretero M.I., Pozo M., Legido J.L., Fernandez-Gonzalez M.V., Delgado R., Gomez I., Armijo F., Maraver F., 2014. Assessment off three Spanish clays for their use in pelotherapy. Applied Clay Science, 99, 131-143.

Circular No. 06/2011/TT-BYT. Regulation on management of cosmetics. Ministry of Health, Ha Noi, 2011.

European Medicine Agency, 2008. Guideline on the specification limits for residues of metal catalysts or metal reagents. Available at: https://www.ema.europa.eu/en/documents/scientific-guideline/guideline-specification-limits-residues-metal-catalysts-metal-reagents_en.pdf

Glavas N., Mourrelle M.L., Gomez C.P., Legido J.L., Smuc N.R., Dolenec M., Kovac N., 2017. The mineralogical, geochemical, and thermophysical characterization of healing saline mud for use in pelotherapy. Applied Clay Science, 135, 119-128.

Gomes C., Carretero M.I., Pozo M., Maraver F., Cantista P., Armijo F., Legido J.L., Teixera F., Rautureau M., Delgado R., 2013. Peloids and pelotherapy: Historical evolution. classification and glossary. Applied Clay Science, 75-76, 28-38.

Health, Canada, 2012. Guidance on heavy metal impurities in cosmetics. Available at: https://www.canada.ca/en/health-canada/services/consumer-product-safety/reports-publications/industry-professionals/guidance-heavy-metal-impurities-cosmetics.html.

Hoang N., 2020. Geodynamic context and mantle source of the East Vietnam Sea spreading-related volcanic rocks in Vietnam and neighboring areas. Journal of Geology, Series A, 317-372/2020, 21-38.

Hung T.T, Huyen D.T., Tu T.A, Desmet M., 2019. Presence of trace elements in sediments of Can Gio mangrove forest, Ho Chi Minh city, Vietnam. Vietnam Journal of Earth Sciences, 41(1), 21-35.

Jagodziński R., Sternala B., Stattegger K., Szczuciński W., 2020. Sediment distribution and provenance on the continental shelf off the Mekong River, SE Vietnam: Insights from heavy mineral analysis. Journal of Asian Earth Sciences, 196, 1-16.

Kalkan E., Canbolat M.Y., Yarbasi N., Ozgul M., 2012. Evaluation of thermal mud characteristics of Erzurum (Koprukoy) clayey raw materials (NE Turkey). International Journal of Physical Sciences, 7(40), 5566-5576.

Karakaya M.C., Karakaya N., Sarioglan S., Koral M., 2010. Some properties of thermal muds of some spas in Turkey. Applied Clay Science, 48, 531-537.

Khiari I., Mefteh S., Sanchez-Espejo R., Cerezo P., Aguzzi C., Lopez-Galindo A., Jamoussi F., Iborra C.V., 2014. Study of traditional Tunisian medina clays used in therapeutic and cosmetic mud-packs. Applied Clay Science, 101, 141-148.

Li C.-F., Lin J., Kulhanek D.K., the Expedition Scientists, 2015. Proceedings of the International Ocean Discovery Program Volume 349. Expedition 349 summary, 43pp.

Long H.V., Thanh N.T., Tuan V.T., Tung N.T., Anh N.L, Din D.B, Duc L.V., Dien T.N., Hiep N.H., 2021. Holocene sedimentation offshore Southeast Vietnam based on geophysical interpretation and sediment composition analysis. Vietnam Journal of Earth Sciences, 43(3), 336-379.

Luong L.D, Hoang N., 2019. Distribution of rare earth elements and methane concentrations in the East China Sea water column: A comparison with the East Vietnam Sea (Bien Dong). Conference proceedings on Advanced Researches in the Earth and Environmental Sciences (Carees 2019), Publishing House of Natural Sciences and Technology, 128-131.

Man T.T., Lan T.T., Duong N.A., Anh P.L., 2020. Assessment of the usability of Tam Bo bentonite (Di Linh, Lam Dong) for peloid. Vietnam Journal of Earth Sciences, 42(4), 384-394.

Mihelčić G., Kniewald G., Ivanišević G., Čepelak R., Mihelčić V., Vdović N., 2012. Physico-chemical characteristics of the peloid mud from Morinje Bay (eastern Adriatic coast, Croatia): suitability for use in balneotherapy. Environ. Geochem. Health, 34, 191-198.

Moraes J.D.D., Bertolino S.R.A., Cuffini S.L., Ducart D.F., Bretzke P.E., Leonardi G.R., 2017. Clay minerals: Properties and applications to dermocometic products and perspective of natural raw materials for therapeutic purposes - A review. International Journal of Pharmaceutics, 534, 213-219.

Nghiep V.C., 2014. Mineral water, industrial water, mineral mud. Encyclopedia of Geology, Editors: Tong Duy Thanh, Mai Trong Nhuan, Tran Nghi, 451-458.

Nissenbaum A., Rullkötter J., Yechieli Y., 2002. Are the curative properties of black mud from the Dead Sea due to the presence of bitumen (asphalt) or other types of organic matter? Environ. Geochem. Health, 24, 327-335.

PetroVietnam, 2005. Geology and oil and gas resources of Vietnam, 526pp.

Quintela A., Terroso D., Silva E.F.D., Rocha F., 2012. Certification and quality criteria of peloids used for therapeutic purposes. Clay minerals, 47, 441-451.

Sang P.N., Bat D.V., Hiep N.H., Chi N.T.K., Binh P.V., 2020. Characteristics of sediment provenance in the southwestern East Sea. Journal of Mining and Earth Sciences, 61(5), 11-19.

Schimanski A., Stattegger K., 2005. Deglacial and Holocene evolution of the Vietnam shelf: stratigraphy, sediments and sea-level change. Marine Geology, 214, 365-387.

Shakirov R.B., Cuong D.H., Obzhirov A.I., Thanh N.T., Valitov M.G., Lee N.S., Legkodimov A.A., Kalgin V.Y., Eskova A.I., Proshkina Z.N., Telegin Y.A., Anh L.D., Storozhenko A.V., Ivanov M.V., Luong L.D., Pletnev S.P., Syedin V.T., Shvalov D.A., Lipinskaya N.A., Bovsun M.A., Makseev D.S., Nhon D.H., 2020. The first integrated Russian-Vietnamese geological, geophysical and oceanographic expedition in the East Vietnam Sea (88th cruise of the R/V Akademik M.A. Lavrentiev, October 27 - December 08, 2019). Results of expeditionary research in 2019 in the World Ocean, inland waters and on the Svalbard archipelago. Conference proceedings, February 26–27, 2020 Moscow, Russian Federation. ISBN 978-5-6044865-0-4. 144-162. https://doi.org/10.21072/978-5-6044865-0-4, (in Russian).

Tan M.T. (Ed), et al., 2009. The East Vietnam Sea. Marine Geology and Geophysics. The Publishing House of Science and Technology, Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology, 3, 517pp.

Taylor S.R., McLennan S.M., 1995. The geochemical evolution of the continental crust. Review of Geophysics, 33(2) 241-265.

TCVN-10791:2015. Malt-Determination of the nitrogen content and calculation of the crude protein content - Kjeldahl method.

TCVN-5979:2007. Soil quality-Determination of pH.

TCVN-6498:1999. Soil quality-Determination of total nitrogen-Modified Kjeldahl method.

TCVN-6648:2000. Soil quality-Determination of dry matter and water content on a mass basic - Gravimetri method.

TCVN-6863:2001. Soil quality-Determination of particle density.

TCVN-8568:2010. Soil quality-Method for determination of cation exchange capacity (CEC) by ammonium acetate method.

TCVN-8941:2011. Soil quality - Determination of total organic carbon - Walkley Black method.

TCVN-9296:2012. Fertilizers-Method for determination of total sulfur-Gravimetric method.

To L.D (Ed), et al., 2009. The East Vietnam Sea. Overview on the East Vietnam Sea. The Publishing House of Science and Technology, Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology, 1, 316pp.

Xuan P.T., Lien N.T., Dang P.T., Pho N.V., Tra D.T., Nga H.T., Quynh B.V., 2016. The nature of the phenomenon of “mud eruption” in Ninh Thuan. Vietnam Journal of Earth Sciences, 38(1), 90-97.

Downloads

Published

2021-09-17

How to Cite

Le Duc, L., Nguyen, H., Shinjo, R. ., B. Shakirov, R. ., & Obzhirov, A. . (2021). Chemical, mineralogical, and physicochemical features of surface saline muds from Southwestern sub-basin of the East Vietnam Sea: Implication for new peloids. Vietnam Journal of Earth Sciences, 43(4). https://doi.org/10.15625/2615-9783/16561

Issue

Section

Articles